Other research activities
The quality of cervical cancer screening of the 1990´s was evaluated with an audit study as recommended by the European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening. The study on archive samples was based on the follow-up of approximately 1.3 million invitations and 950.000 visits. The proportion of false positive cytological reading results in the Finnish programme was small. The amount of intensified follow-up recommendations and referrals to colposcopy varied between laboratories. The effect of screen failures (false negative results) within the Finnish screening program is minimal and cannot be readily decreased without sacrificing the high specificity or without high incremental costs.
Mortality of women treated for CIN
The long-term survival and cause-specific mortality of women treated for CIN was studied in a long-term follow-up of over 7000 women treated between 1974 and 2001. Cervical cancer mortality was not elevated among women treated for CIN compared to the general population. This study took into account deaths occurring from cervical cancers diagnosed after the CIN treatment. This suggests high effectiveness of CIN management. However, overall mortality was approximately 10 % higher than in the general population. Especially mortality from any cancer, lung cancer and fairly rare cases of HPV-related anogenital cancer was higher among CIN patients. This was probably due to smoking and interventions to reduce smoking are still needed.